The issue of solid waste management in Nigeria needs urgent attention as the effects continue to deteriorate life and property of individual and the general public. Therefore, the government requires concerted effort to sensitize the general public on the need for proper disposal of solid waste. Officials should be well trained on professionalism, service delivery and ensure that other states within the country have access to quality waste managers who are within reach and can assist on the best approach to managing their waste before collection. Polluters are to be brought to book and prosecuted for violations in order to respect the equity to life and at the end achieving sustainable practices of waste management.
According to source, effect and re-cycling processes, waste could be classified in form of liquid, solid or gas. Many municipal and international environmental regulations categorises waste as solid, radioactive, and hazardous waste (LAWMA, 2008).
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF INFORMAL COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES ON RESIDENTS
The study examines the socio-economic and physical environmental effects of informal commercial activities on residents of Yaba-Ojuelegba corridor in Lagos metropolis. The objectives include examination of characteristics of informal commercial activities in the study area, analysis of socio-economic characteristics of respondents, appraisal of the relationship between respondents’ socio-economic characteristics and their perception of the effects of informal commercial activities and assessment of governments’ efforts and citizen’s participation in management of informal commercial activities in the study area.
The study utilised primary and secondary data. A total of one-thousand-three-hundred and sixty-two residents (1362) and seven-hundred and forty-four operators (744), were identified in the study area. Twenty percent (20%) of operators and ten percent (10%) of residents were selected for interview using simple random sampling technique. Data from respondents were obtained with the use of questionnaire. Respondents’ socio-economic characteristics, their perception of effects of informal commercial activities and efforts of government at managing informal commercial activities were analysed descriptively using charts, graphs, tables, photographs and maps. Similarly, socioeconomic characteristics of operators and nature of informal commercial activities were analysed descriptively. Spearman Rank Correlation was adopted using a pairwise method to test the significance of the relationship between socio-economic characteristics of residents and their perceived effects of informal commercial activities in the study area.
The study reveals that trading covers 73.8%, while services covers 26.2% as the types of informal commercial activities observed in the study area and their activities are largely concentrated on public open spaces, spills over to roadsides. Also, the study shows that majority (60%) of residents are middle income earners and are largely educated (90%). The results show that gender and length of stay in neighbourhood are the two dominant socioeconomic characteristics of residents that are significantly related to the effects of informal commercial activities. Gender is strongly, positively and significantly related to crime (r = .720), poor sanitation (r = .712) and employment generation (r = .696). Findings further reveal that efforts made by government agencies such KAI, LAWMA, Health Officers, Police and Citizen’s Participation towards management of informal commercial activities in the study area are ineffective.
The study concludes that not all socioeconomic characteristics of residents are significantly to the perceived effects of informal commercial activities in the study area and that governments efforts and citizens participation are not effective towards management of informal commercial activities.
URBAN CITY DESIGN
Urban design is concerned with analyzing, organizing and shaping urban form so as to elaborate as richly and as coherently as possible the lived experience of the inhabitants. In essence it is about the interdependence and mutual development of both city and citizen. Urban design is the economic projections, packaging of new developments, negotiating public/private financial partnerships, setting up guidelines and standards for historic revitalization, forming non-profit corporations that combine citizens with public and private sector financing resources, all are considered as design.